Best practices taken from T2K experience highlight the partners’ work and successes and how they managed to take up the challenge.
1. Climate issues
Many studies have evaluated the emissions from the transport sector.
The average figures for the energy mix at national level can differ fairly significantly from the figures at local level.
2. Energy issues
In 2012, STIB spent €21 million per year on electricity and €13 million on fuel (including support fleet).
TfGM’s energy costs were €2,5 million higher in 2011/2012 than they were in 2006/2007.
1. Data collection and analysis
Under the ‘Grenelle de l’environnement’, French public policy defining key actions for tackling sustainable development issues.
STIB has smart meters for its high-voltage electricity network (11kV) located at the substation level. They allow a daily monitoring of the global energy consumption both for traction and buildings.
RATP installed a new cooling unit in its main office building to cool the server rooms and to preheat the building in winter through the recovery of the heat produced by the cooling unit.
This project involved the replacement of existing main electricity meters with smart meters (AMR), which provide half-hourly energy usage data.
2. Carbon strategy and action plan
STIB finalized its “Carbon & Energy Strategy” in February 2014, with projections reaching 2030. For this project, Climact, an energy & climate change consulting company, supported STIB.
Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM) reduced its own carbon emissions by 19% between 2007/2008 and 2012/2013.
1. Energy efficiency in buildings and infrastructure
The heat released by automatic vending machines, public address systems and security systems increases significantly the temperature in the technical rooms.
STIB is progressively replacing manual doors with automatic gates in its workshops.
STIB installed a CHP unit for the production of heat and electricity in the Delta bus and metro depot in Brussels. The depot covers an area of 70,000m².
moBiel operates several tram lines with underground stations and overground stops. During the winter, railway points must be heated in order not to freeze.
The RATP metro network has a top-contact third rail to supply energy to the metro trains. This situation leads to high energy use, because the third rail must be heated in winter to avoid the accumulation of snow and ice.
To cool the computer server rooms of its main office building in Paris, RATP used to take deliveries of ice water from an external company.
The roof of RATP’s headquarters building was originally insulated in 1995. Following an energy audit, the company discovered that heating and air-conditioning accounted for 8% of the building’s total energy consumption.
RATP operates an extensive network of metro and RER (rapid trains). It decided to install LED lighting in all metro and RER stations.
TfGM improved the lighting controls of the Manchester Shudehill Interchange, which includes a tram stop, bus station and car park.
The heating installations in the RET depots and workshops were operated with no clear strategy for energy efficiency.
In its energy policy, RATP made a commitment to reduce energy consumption by at least 40% in its tertiary buildings. The RATP headquarters, with a 56,000 m² surface area and a staff of 2,600 persons, was the highest energy-consuming site.
In order to save energy and maintenance costs the lighting of metro and light rail stations can be switched off during closing hours.
moBiel operates four tram lines, all crossing the city centre in a tunnel section with underground stations.
Because energy costs were fairly low in the 1980s, lighting in the Brussels metro stations was not switched off at night.
TfGM replaced the traditional lighting at Hyde bus station with LED lighting in order to trial this new technology before rolling it out to other sites.
2. Energy efficiency in vehicles
moBiel intended to invest in a braking energy recovery system to decrease the energy consumption of its light-rail network.
Braking energy recovery technologies have been studied at STIB since 2004.
RET identified braking energy recovery as a great opportunity to reduce the energy used by its metro system.
moBiel organised a one-day training for their 300 bus drivers.
STIB implemented an eco-driving programme for its bus fleet.
TfGM has taken numerous steps to reduce the energy consumption and carbon emissions of its fleet of around 150 technical vehicles.
RATP operates an extended regional rail network (RER) with three types of regional trains.
RET investigated the passenger load to assess whether the metro length could be reduced at certain times of the week.
3. Energy production systems
Together with the Manchester Metropolitan University, TfGM carried out a feasibility study for the use of fuel cells in the public transport field.
During the design phase of the new Beverwaard tram depot, RET investigated the deployment of energy piles for recovering geothermal energy.
moBiel has developed a ‘green station’ at the terminus of tram line 2, near the tram depot.
RATP installed a heat pump in the recently built metro station Front Populaire, following the extension of metro line 12.
To supplement the energy requirements of the new Rochdale Interchange, TfGM developed the Hydro Electric Power (HEP) scheme.
RET installed a solar thermal system on the roof of its new Beverwaard tram depot to produce hot water for showers.
Following feasibility studies, Horwich Parkway was identified as a good site for the installation of a wind turbine.
4. Building Ecodesign
RET carried out a pilot project in the Stadhuis metro service area, a room where metro staff can work, organise meetings or simply rest and have lunch.
STIB has developed with Brussels Mobility a reference document aimed at integrating environmental considerations during the whole renovation process for underground stations.
1. Staff Awareness
STIB has implemented energy challenges in several depots and workshops, with a view to improving employees’ energy use behaviour.
Staff commuting represented 9% of RATP carbon balance in 2011 (51.500 tons CO2eq).
Since 2005, all STIB depots and workshops have organised transport for staff through a taxi company.
A joint Energy Week was organised by all Ticket to Kyoto partners from 30 January 2012 to 5 February 2012. It aimed to raise awareness of energy waste and encourage behavioural change among staff.
3. Civil society involvement
In France, carbon reporting has been compulsory since December 2012 for private sector organisations with more than 500 staff.
RATP has developed a CO2 calculator available directly from the homepage of the company website.
Children and parents are increasingly shunning public transport as a viable way to get to and from school.